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Compendium of IPM Definitions (CID)

What is IPM and how is it defined in the Worldwide Literature?

NYS Definition of IPM

The Role of Technology in Sustainable Agriculture
  • Hutchins, Scott H.
  • Dow AgroSciences

Weed Management in Small Holder Rice Production in the Tropics
  • Johnson, David E.
  • University of Greenwich, Chatham, Kent, UK

Lecture Notes

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  • 1.1. Integrated pest management defined
    • 1.1.1. IPM is a buzzword defined differently by different individuals or groups to reflect their own special interests
    • 1.1.2. Definition of Steering Committee for Pest Management Programs, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University (1979):
      • Integrated Pest Management Defined:
      • Integrated Pest Management is the use of multiple tactics in a compatible manner to maintain pest populations at levels below those causing economic injury while providing protection against hazards to humans, domestic animals, plants, and the environment.
      • Integrated means that a broad interdisciplinary approach is taken using scientific principles of plant protection to fuse into a single system a variety of management strategies and tactics. This integration of techniques must be compatible with the total plant production and marketing systems.
      • Pests include all biotic agents (i.e., insects, mites, nematodes, weeds, bacteria, fungi, viruses, parasitic seed plants, and vertebrates) that adversely affect plant production.
      • Management is the decision making process to control pest populations in a planned, systematic way by keeping their numbers or damage at economically acceptable levels.

      • Tactics include such things as chemical, biological, cultural, physical, genetic, and regulatory procedures. The goal of integrated pest management is to optimize pest control in relation to the total plant production system in the light of economic, social, and environmental conditions.
    • 1.1.3. Beyond the pesticide backlash
      • Too many people see IPM as nothing more than a means of reducing the use of pesticides--the objective is to reduce the dose of the pesticide or reduce the number of pesticide applications
      • Reducing pesticide use might be a helpful first step, but it must not be considered the ultimate goal of IPM
      • Pesticide abuse is only one small facet of a much larger problem -- sustainable agriculture
      • We are on the leading edge of a crisis that within the lifetime of most of the people in this room (not some indefinite future time, but while you are in the midst of your agricultural careers) will begin to threaten the very survival of Homo sapiens.
  • 1.2. A brief history of IPM
    • 1.2.1. Setting the stage
    • 1.2.2. Early interactions with insects
    • 1.2.3. The "Dark Ages"
    • 1.2.4. The "Age of Enlightenment"
    • 1.2.5. Divergent discoveries
    • 1.2.6. The chemical age
    • 1.2.7. The environmental age

    • 1.2.8. For a brief review of the history of agriculture and pest management: Historical Chart
  • 1.3. The promise of pesticides
    • 1.3.1. Saves money
    • 1.3.2. Saves yield
    • 1.3.3. Saves lives
    • 1.3.4. Saves wildlife (?)
  • 1.4. The perils of pesticides
    • 1.4.1. Environmental
      • Direct
      • Indirect
    • 1.4.2. Ecological
      • Pest resurgence
      • Pest replacement
    • 1.4.3. Evolutionary
      • Pesticide resistance
    • 1.4.4. Economic
      • Legislation
      • Crop value/treament cost
  • 1.5. The great debate: The optimal role of pesticides
    • The optimal role of pesticides remains one of the most contentious and devisive issues in IPM. In the third class period (8/30) you will be divided into "teams" to develop a debate strategy and debate this topic. The class will be divided into a pro-pesticide ("nozzleheads") and an anti-pesticide ("tree-huggers") team. Based on the readings, class notes, and whatever other sources you can find, be prepared to defend either of the following statements:

    • Nozzleheads: Pesticides are safe and effective when used properly and they are the only available option to control most pest problems. IPM should focus on decisions regarding which pesticide(s) to choose and optimal timing and method of application.
    • Tree-huggers: Pesticides are hazardous to humans and the environment and they quickly lose their effectiveness because of negative side-effects in the agroecosystem. A basic principle of IPM should be the use of pesticides only as a last resort when all other tactics have failed.