ECE303 Electromagnetic Fields and Waves




Lecture notes


Part I: Electroquasistatics

Lecture 1

Applications of electromagnetic fields and waves in industry and research.

Lecture 2

Maxwell’s equations in integral and differential forms, electrostatics and magnetostatics, electroquasistatics and magnetoquasistatics.

Lecture 3

Electrostatics, applications of Gauss’ Law in problem solving, applications of the superposition principle in problem solving, some simple charge distributions.

Lecture 4

Electric scalar potential, Poisson equation, Laplace equation, superposition principle, problem solving.


Part II: Conductors and Dielectrics

Lecture 5

Electrical conduction and perfect metals in electroquasistatics, solution of Laplace and Poisson equations with metal electrodes, boundary conditions, dielectric relaxation, image charges and method of images.

Lecture 6

Capacitance, problems in Cartesian, Cylindrical and Spherical coordinates.

Lecture 7

Material polarization, polarization charge and current densities, mathematics of polarization in electromagnetism, dielectrics vs conductors, boundary conditions.

Lecture 8

Problems and examples involving material polarization, dielectrics, and boundary conditions.


Part III: Magnetoquasistatics

Lecture 9

Magnetoquasistatics, Ampere’s law, the vector potential, the vector Poisson equation, Biot-Savart law, magnetic fields of some simple current distributions, magnetic flux and the vector potential.

Lecture 10

Magnetoquasistatics in the presence of perfect metals, boundary conditions, method of images, inductance, inductances of some simple structures.


Part IV: Fields, Forces, and Energy

Lecture 11

Faraday’s Law and electromagnetic Induction, non-uniqueness of voltages in magnetoquasistatics, current-charge continuity equation in electromagnetism, power-energy continuity equation in electromagnetism, Poynting’s vector, electromagnetic energy and power flow and connection with electrical circuit theory

Lecture 12

Energy, forces, and work in electromagnetics, forces between charged dielectrics and conductors, electromagnetic energy, forces, and work in closed systems and systems connected to voltage sources.


Part V: Electromagnetic Waves in Free-Space and in Media

Lecture 13

Electromagnetic wave equation, uniform plane wave solutions, Poynting vector.

Lecture 14

Time-harmonic electromagnetic fields, phasors, complex version of Maxwell’s equations, complex Poynting vector.

Lecture 15

Polarization states of plane waves, linearly polarized waves, circularly polarized waves, elliptically polarized waves, left-hand and right-hand circularly (or elliptically) polarized waves.

Lecture 16 part (a)     

Wave propagation in isotropic media – dielectrics and conductors.  

Lecture 16 part(b)

Wave propagation in isotropic media – plasmas, dispersive media, wave packets, phase and group velocities.

Lecture 17

Wave propagation in anisotropic media, biaxial media, uniaxial media, half-wave plates, quarter-wave plates, birefringence.

Lecture 18

Wave reflection and transmission at media interfaces, reflection and transmission coefficients, standing waves and standing wave ratio.

Lecture 19

Non-normal incidence of waves at media interfaces, phase matching condition, reflection, refraction, Snell’s law, critical angle and evanescent waves, Brewster’s angle. 

Part VI: Guided Electromagnetic Waves

Lecture 20

Transmission lines, types of transmission lines, fields, voltages and currents on transmission lines, transmission line equations, transmission line dispersion relations, transmission line impedances

Lecture 21

Impedance transformations in transmission line RF and microwave circuits, equivalent circuit models, short load, open load, matched load, Thevenin equivalent circuit models, power dissipation.

Lecture 22

G-Plane and Smith Charts, load matching and stub tuning, quarter wave transformers.

Lecture 23         Lecture 23 addition

Reflection and transmission for multilayer structures, AR and HR coatings, 1-dimensional photonic bandgap structures, multilayer structures for non-normal incidence (TE and TM waves).

Lecture 24

Time domain analysis of transmission lines, transients.

Lecture 25

Guided waves in parallel plate metal waveguides, TE and TM modes, dispersion characteristics and cut-off frequencies.

Lecture 26

Guided waves in dielectric slab waveguides, TE and TM modes, dispersion characteristics and cut-off frequencies.

Lecture 27

Guided waves in rectangular metal waveguides, TE and TM modes, dispersion characteristics and cut-off frequencies.

Part VII: Radiation Emission and Antennas

Lecture 28

Radiation by time-varying currents and charges, retarded potentials in time-domain and for time-harmonic fields, wave equations for vector and scalar potentials, Hertzian dipoles, near- and far-fields, Poynting vector. 

Lecture 29

Hertzian dipoles, near- and far-fields, Poynting vector, antenna gain, radiation pattern, radiation resistance. 

Lecture 30

Hertzian dipoles, superposition principle for more than one Hertzian dipoles, gain and radiation pattern for two-element array of Hertzian dipoles.

Lecture 31

Radiation from linear wire antennas, short-dipole, half-wave dipole, three-half-wave dipole, radiation from wire loop antennas, electric vs magnetic dipole antennas.

Lecture 32

Circuit properties of transmitting antennas, antenna self-impedance and trans-impedance, receiving and transmitting antennas, antenna effective area, reciprocity and antenna theorem.

Lecture 33

Antenna arrays, element factor and array factor, linear antenna arrays, phase arrays, binomial arrays, radiation patterns.

Lecture 34

Electromagnetic scattering, Rayleigh scattering, scattering from a dielectric sphere, scattering-cross section and scattered radiation, scattering of sunlight in the atmosphere (why the sky is blue), radars, radar range equation.

Lecture 35

Aperture antennas and electromagnetic diffraction, Fraunhoffer diffraction, rectangular apertures - radiation pattern and gain.

Lecture 36

Reflector antennas, dish antennas, parabolic dish antennas