Fertilizer can be placed in a "band" often 2 inches over and 2 inches down from the seed during corn planting or drilling small grains or forage seedings. Since it's done in the same motion as planting, it's also called a "starter" application (i.e. to help "start" the plant off). The band is close enough to efficiently supply the young plants with nutrients, while not so close as to damage the developing roots through salt burns. Check out the diagram, below.
Fertilizer is loaded into hoppers often in the front of the corn planter and is placed in the band during planting. See fertilizer banding in action by clicking the corn planter image, below.
Similarly, grain drills, such as the one pictured below, can be used to band fertilizer while planting small grains or perennial forage seedings.
So what are the pros and cons of applying fertilizer in a band?